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Clean Water Act Compliance

The Clean Water Act became law in 1972. It established the regulation of discharges of pollutants into surface waters of the United States, and it set the structure for regulating water quality standards. A large portion of FTN’s work involves helping industries, municipalities, land developers, and others with the NPDES permitting process, wetland delineation and mitigation, stormwater pollution prevention plans, and other CWA requirements. Our firm’s engineers, biologists, and scientists work on CWA issues for our clients virtually every day. State and federal regulatory agencies respect the work that FTN does for its clients because of the long history we have of providing reliable data and effective solutions for regulatory issues.


NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) Permits
NPDES permitting assistance is one of the most common services FTN provides to our clients. The Clean Water Act prohibits anyone from discharging "pollutants" through a "point source" into a "water of the United States" unless they have an NPDES permit, which contains limits on what can be discharged, monitoring and reporting requirements, and other provisions to ensure that the discharge does not hurt water quality.
Stormwater Permitting
Stormwater discharges are considered point sources and permitting is administered under the NPDES program.
Non point Source/BMP Assessments
Our firm is experienced in assessing nonpoint source pollution and implementing Best Management Plans to address the problems.
Regulatory Analysis
FTN’s professionals have extensive knowledge and understanding of environmental regulations and are highly experienced in guiding permittees in the most cost-effective means for regulatory compliance.
Monitoring/Field Studies
FTN has decades of experience and expertise in designing and conducting environmental monitoring and field studies to address compliance of environmental regulations.
TMDLs (Total Daily Maximum Loads)
This is the calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant allowed to enter a waterbody so that the waterbody will meet and continue to meet water quality standards for that particular pollutant. A TMDL determines a pollutant reduction target and allocates load reductions necessary to the pollutant’s source.
Mixing Zone Analysis
This is an area where an effluent discharge undergoes initial dilution and is extended to cover the secondary mixing in the waterbody.
Use Attainability Analysis (UAA)
This analysis is a scientific assessment of factors affecting the attainment of uses specified in the Clean Water Act ("fishable/swimmable" uses). A UAA is conducted for any water body when a state or authorized tribe designates uses that do not include the uses specified in the Act or when designating sub-categories of these uses that require less stringent criteria than previously required. FTN is considered a leader in Arkansas in conducting UAAs. 
Wetlands/404 Permitting
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act establishes a program to regulate the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States, including wetlands. Section 404 requires a permit before dredged or fill material may be discharged into waters of the United States, unless the activity is exempt from the regulation.
Aquatic Life/Fisheries Studies
These studies are important to determine water quality, and FTN has an experienced team of professionals who have conducted these projects in a wide variety of waters.
Toxicity/Biomonitoring Analysis
Biomonitoring is the measurement of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances as indicators of effluent quality, in-stream water quality, and ecosystem health.
Thermal Discharges
These discharges can change water quality through the change of ambient water temperature.